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sufficient intervening cause

sufficient intervening cause

As a result, intervening cause may be used as a legal defense in a civil lawsuit. A cause that is legally sufficient to result in liability. Business Law Chapter 7 24 Terms. YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE... chapter 5 (Negligence and Strict Liability) 9 Terms. For any given phenomenon we seek to explain, we ideally hope to discover a cause that is both necessary and sufficient. DaveVenor. Ct. App. The defendant did not move its truck off the road. An efficient intervening cause is the new and independent act which itself is a proximate cause of an injury and which breaks the causal connection between the original wrong and the injury. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "intervening factors" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. cause: [noun] a reason for an action or condition : motive. The most common intervening causes cited by defendants are natural forces and negligent human conduct. 2 The CPD formation occurs within 1 ps in a nearly barrierless reaction. Causation (Multiple sufficient causes (Intervening Events (Intervening… Causation. In the concurrent cause cases—the two sufficient fires joining to burn the victim’s house—each fire is said to be a necessary element of its own sufficient set, so each fire is a cause. The key difference between an intervening cause and a superseding cause is foreseeability. In Criminal Procedure, Probable Cause is the reasonable basis for the belief that someone has committed a particular crime. an intervening cause that is sufficient to prevent the Defendant's negligence from being held to be the proximate cause of injury They Supersede (cancel) defendant's liability . Chapter 9 35 Terms. Other entries in this encyclopedia dealwith the nature of causation as that relation is referr… IS A CONTRIBUTORY CAUSE TEST SUFFICIENT? The cause was superseding: The new cause must be something that breaks the natural sequence of events that would typically flow through after the defendant's negligence. 131, 145 N.E. In Frazier v.Gillis, [Ms. 2100202 Aug. 5, 2011] __ So. Phillabaum v. Lake Erie & W. R. Co., 315 111. Jurisprudence in Canada and in other common law jurisdictions and academic scholarship have given rise to efforts to formulate a principle to deal with intervening acts. In that case, the defendant (a lumber company) and another vehicle collided. Loehr, Cynthia. The Queen Mother advanced her people’s cause, by merely guiding (never meddling), advising and intervening only when “something was brewing”. Torts 1L NEGLIGENCE 27 Terms. Merriam-Webster. Causation (Multiple sufficient causes (Intervening acts (Acts by the…: Causation (Multiple sufficient causes, Factual Causation - but for test Barnett V Chelsea and Kensignton, Chester V Afshar, Divisibility, ) 4 Intervening act; 5 Multiple sufficient causes; 6 Successive causes; 7 Exceptional cases; 8 End; 9 References; Required Reading . Causation and Intervening Injuries ... That contribution was legally sufficient to establish causation. Intervening events by the claimants. Torts 1L NEGLIGENCE 27 Terms. Business Law Chapter 7 24 Terms. See Ontiveros v. Borak, 667 P.2d 200, 205-06 (Ariz. 1983). DaveVenor. It is immaterial how many new elements or forces have been introduced, if the original cause remains active, the … sufficient intervening cause, the negligent act of the truck driver, which was the actual cause of the tragedy. An "intervening efficient cause" is a new and independent force which breaks the causal connection between the original wrong and injury, and itself becomes direct and immediate cause of injury. Intervening Cause: An event that comes between the initial event (in a sequence of events) and the end result, thereby altering the natural course of events that might have connected a wrongful act to an injury. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) are the main DNA lesion caused by UV radiation, which are a molecular origin of skin cancer. Jobling V Associated Dairies. 806, 808. In other words, a superseding cause is an intervening act that is legally sufficient to transfer blame for the harm in question from the defendant to a third party, or to a natural event. An intervening efficient cause is a new and independent force, which breaks the causal connection between the original wrong and the injury, and is the proximate and immediate cause of the injury. Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of Law. Wieland V Cyril Carpets. Independent sufficient causes When two or more negligent parties, where the consequence of their negligence joins together to cause damages, in a circumstance where either one of them alone would have caused it anyway, each is deemed to be an "Independent Sufficient Cause," because each could be deemed a "substantial factor," and both are held legally responsible for the damages. dhuffman73. These jurisdictions simply ask whether the intervening cause is sufficient to relieve a defendant of liability. If factual causation cannot be established the prosecution will fail. In other words each is sufficient but not necessary, though one of the two is necessary. Usually intervening causes are actions by a third party or natural occurrence that alter the circumstances of accident. It must be truly independent and not set in motion by the defendant’s negligence. An intervening cause is a separate act of yet another party, which interrupts the direct connection between the defendant’s negligent or reckless act, and the damages or injury suffered by the plaintiff. Sappideen, Vines, Grant & Watson, Torts: Commentary and Materials (Lawbook Co, 10th ed, 2009), pp. Therefore, it is unfair to hold the defendant liable for the result of the intervening cause. That is, it was not an intervening act. If an individual is fired from a job at the bank for Embezzlement, he or she is fired for cause—as distinguished from decisions or actions considered to be Arbitrary or capricious. Further Readings . If the intervening cause is independent of the defendant’s conduct, then the intervening cause was not reasonably foreseeable and there is no sufficient relationship to the defendant’s conduct. School University of San Diego; Course Title LAW LWBC550; Uploaded By kenticknap. App. One can argue that the second contemplates situations where there are two causes each of which is sufficient to have caused the loss. In other words, a superseding cause is an intervening act that is legally sufficient to transfer blame for the harm in question from the defendant to a third party, or to a natural event. Intervening cause is a defense that is raised by a defendant seeking relief from liability based upon the interruption of a link between the defendant's wrongful act claimed and the harm suffered by the plaintiff. It Usually Comes Down to Foreseeability. The entry of the car into the lane of the truck would not have resulted in the collision had the latter heeded the emergency signals given by the former to slow down and give the car an opportunity to go back into its proper lane. The question which naturally arises is whether the determination of superseding cause in this context is a question for the jury. An independent intervening cause is something that breaks the chain of causation. Suicide cases. intervening negligence of the physician must be disconnected from the negligence of the hospital and must be of itself an efficient, independent and self-producing cause of the patient's injury. Nevertheless, the judgment has been critisised on various grounds. efficient intervening cause. sufficient intervening cause, the negligent act of the truck driver, which was the actual cause of the tragedy. 131, 145 N.E. A sufficient cause represents a condition which, if it is present, inevitably results in the effect. Thus the presence of y does not imply the prior occurrence of x. Contributory causes For some specific effect, in a singular case, a factor that is a contributory cause is one among several co-occurrent causes. Black's law dictionary. If the intervening cause is independent of the defendant’s conduct, then the intervening cause was not reasonably foreseeable and there is no sufficient relationship to the defendant’s conduct. On the other hand, he acknowledges that not intervening with Mohamed had the potential to cause more harm. katiew1995. Chapter 9 35 Terms. 1949 Scott v. Simms, 188 Va. 808, 51 S.E.2d 250. A cause that is legally sufficient to result in liability. Hence, the concept of efficient intervening cause is subsumed by the concepts of proximate cause and concurrent cause. efficient intervening cause see cause 1. App. This should not be used for legal research but instead can be used to find solutions that will help you do legal research. Intervening cause does not operate to exempt defendant from fault if that cause is put into operation by defendant’s wrongful act or omission. Introduction . Multiple sufficient causes. Causation (Multiple sufficient causes (Intervening acts (Acts by the…: Causation (Multiple sufficient causes, Factual Causation - but for test Barnett V Chelsea and Kensignton, Chester V Afshar, Divisibility, ) However, another cause z may alternatively cause y. An intervening efficient cause is a new and independent force, which breaks the causal connection between the original wrong and the injury, and is the proximate and immediate cause of the injury. Pages 112 This preview shows page 41 - 43 out of 112 pages. An intervening cause is a separate action that breaks the direct connection between the actions of the defendant and a loss or injury to another person. Intervening cause will not be deemed to have broken causal connection if intervening cause was foreseen or reasonably might have been foreseen by wrongdoer. The intervening cause becomes a superseding cause relieving a defendant of liability when it “was unforeseeable by a reasonable person in the position of the original actor and when, looking backward, after the event, the intervening act appears extraordinary.” Ontiveros, 136 Ariz. at 506. Cause cause n 1: something that brings about an effect or result [the negligent act which was the of the plaintiff's injury] NOTE: The cause of an injury must be proven in both tort and criminal cases. All jurisdictions differentiate between an intervening cause that relieves a defendant of liability and one that does not: the only difference is in the terminology. 1. Browse US Legal Forms’ largest database of 85k state and industry-specific legal forms. It’s an act or event by someone other than the defendant that happens after the negligent act. Corrs V IBC Vehicles, Reeves, Kirkham. For an instructive discussion of when a subsequent cause is not an intervening cause, see Hill, supra. Ohio case law has It Usually Comes Down to Foreseeability. This should not be used for legal research but instead can be used to find solutions that will help you do legal research. To recover damages, causation requires that the plaintiff's harm was caused by defendant's wrongdoing. 3d __(Ala. Civ. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "sufficient cause" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of Law. Seemingly the central interests that justify having an entry oncausation in the law in a philosophy encyclopedia are: to understandjust what is the law’s concept of causation, if it has one; tosee how that concept compares to the concept of causation is use inscience and in everyday life; and to examine what reason(s) there arejustifying or explaining whatever differences there may be between thetwo concepts of causation. Banka used the heroin that night and the next morning Noragon found her husband dead i… Intervening Cause : An event that comes between the initial event (in a sequence of events) and the end result, thereby altering the natural course of events that might have connected a wrongful act to an injury. an intervening cause that is sufficient to prevent the Defendant's negligence from being held to be the proximate cause of injury They Supersede (cancel) defendant's liability. For an instructive discussion of when a subsequent cause is not an intervening cause, see Hill, supra. An efficient intervening cause is a new proximate cause which breaks the connection with the original cause and becomes itself solely responsible for the result in question. The entry of the car into the lane of the truck would not have resulted in the collision had the latter heeded the emergency signals given by the former to slow down and give the car an opportunity to go back into its proper lane. However, there was sufficient evidence for a jury to conclude that Panameno's decision to drive from his friend's house to his girlfriend's house and then from the girlfriend's house to the scene of the accident constituted a superceding intervening cause and the jury should have been so instructed. 806, 808. Thus, the original negligent actor is not liable… While the person who committed the act considered to be the proximate cause of a plaintiff’s damages is held liable, he may escape being held liable if he can show that some … Negligent human conduct is conduct that exposes a person to abnormal risks. 1990. something that brings about an effect or a result. Cause Sufficient to Excuse Procedural Default. Hence, the concept of efficient intervening cause is subsumed by the … However, there was sufficient evidence for a jury to conclude that Panameno's decision to drive from his friend's house to his girlfriend's house and then from the girlfriend's house to the scene of the accident constituted a superceding intervening cause and the jury should have been so instructed. The Doctrine of Intervening Cause in Florida Personal Injury Cases. Foreseeability rule: Generally courts use a foreseeability rule to determine whether Sufficient causes If x is a sufficient cause of y, then the presence of x necessarily implies the subsequent occurrence of y. Not all intervening acts are superseding causes. An "intervening efficient cause" is a new and independent force which breaks the causal connection between the original wrong and injury, and itself becomes direct and immediate cause of injury. An intervening act will be called a superseding cause (or act) that relieves the original … No. 2. On April 14, 2010, Joshua Banka purchased heroin from Lil C in the presence of his wife, Noragon Banka (“Noragon”). Intervening causes that are sufficient to prevent D from being negligent are called "superseding" causes, since they supersede or cancel D’s liability. In all Florida personal injury cases, the plaintiff must prove certain facts before they will be entitled to receive compensation for their injuries. sufficient reason. CBC ombudsman Esther Enkin says that, while a core value of the organization is independence, there is no explicit rule stating journalists should not get involved in a story, but to do so would have to be under a particular set of circumstances such as imminent loss of life. 1 CA-CV 19-0544 (July 16, 2020), the Arizona Court of Appeals held that the acts of an individual who was awakened and decided to drive again after previously arriving safe at home, getting into bed and going to sleep, constituted a sufficient intervening superseding cause to cut off the establishment’s liability. An independent intervening cause is an act or event (by a party other than the defendant) that happens after the negligent act and injures the plaintiff. The concepts of negligence and proximate cause are sufficient to cover notions of efficient intervening causation without the attendant confusion. On November 17, 2009, Breanna Brown, a confidential informant cooperating with the Central Iowa Drug Task Force, conducted a controlled buy of heroinfrom suspected drug dealer “Lil C.” Various officers later identified Lil C as Petitioner Marcus Burrage, but at trial Burrage denied ever selling drugs to Brown. The key difference between an intervening cause and a superseding cause is foreseeability. Why was the victim’s decision to refuse medical treatment seen as a subsisting condition rather than an intervening cause? Pedrino. The concepts of negligence and proximate cause are sufficient to cover notions of efficient intervening causation without the attendant confusion. 3. 1: an independent cause that follows another cause in time in producing the result but does not interrupt the chain of causation if foreseeable called also supervening cause compare concurrent cause and superseding cause in this entry 1: a reasonable ground in fact and circumstance for a belief in the existence of certain circumstances (as that an offense has been or is being committed, that a person is guilty of an offense, that a particular … 1 superseding cause some but not all intervening. dhuffman73 . In the Kitter case, which involved a multiple car accident, the court found there was a superseding intervening cause sufficient to relieve the tortfeasor of liability. 2000. Natural forces include extraordinary weather, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and the conduct of animals. It … McKew V Holland. Phillabaum v. Lake Erie & W. R. Co., 315 111. 3d __(Ala. Civ. actual cause: cause in fact in this entry but-for cause: cause in fact in this entry cause in fact: a cause without which the result would not have occurred called also actual cause but-for cause In Frazier v.Gillis, [Ms. 2100202 Aug. 5, 2011] __ So. 806 (Neb. Therefore, it is unfair to hold the defendant liable for the result of the intervening cause. Since causes precede their effects (but not vice versa), we should expect that “at least one possible intervention on a cause induces a change in that cause which strictly precedes a change in the corresponding effect.” (p.18) By contrast, changes in variables that are constitutively related will occur simultaneously as constitution is a synchronous relation. Intervening Events. 25). Whether an event constitutes a superseding cause is ordinarily a question of fact for the jury to decide. Thus, the original negligent actor is not liable for an injury that could not have been foreseen or reasonably anticipated as the probable consequence of his negligent act, and would not have resulted from it had not the intervening efficient cause interrupted the natural sequence of events, turned aside their course, and produced the injury. Published on: May 15, 2017 | by Friedman, Rodman & Frank, P.A. Enlisting in the army is a sufficient cause for being issued a uniform, even though there are other ways of acquiring uniforms.! Baker V Willoughby. D’s negligence, and which contributes to that negligence in producing P’s injury. katiew1995. This requirement is imposed to protect people from unreasonable or unrestricted invasions or intr… Merriam-Webster. Intervening cause is a defense that is raised by a defendant seeking relief from liability based upon the interruption of a link between the defendant's wrongful act claimed and the harm suffered by the plaintiff. In other words, it can’t be a foreseeable consequence of the original act. According to Burrage, a contributing cause standard is inappropriate in this case because it does not meet the statute’s causal requirements. Before someone may be arrested or searched by a police officer without a warrant, probable cause must exist. However, if a defendant's conduct constitutes merely passive negligence, which creates a condition which facilitates injury through subsequent third-party negligence, the third-party negligence is an efficient intervening cause. It must be truly independent and not something set in motion by the defendant’s negligence. However, a superseding cause, which is sufficient to become the proximate cause of the final result and relieve defendant of liability for his original negligence, arises when an intervening cause occurs and was unforeseeable. "An intervening cause is an independent cause that intervenes between defendant's original negligent act or omission and the final result and is necessary in bringing about that result. HENRY CAMPBELL BLACK, M. A.. Intervening Cause. App. How all this plays out, of course, depends on the facts of your case. 3 The “collective excitation” of several stacked base pairs by UV‐A radiation causes CPDs, too. Convenient, Affordable Legal Help - Because We Care! This is the concept of an ‘intervening cause’, that some new event or events result in the accused’s actions not being a significant contributing cause of death” (para. 469-81 [13.05 -13.40]. efficient intervening cause see cause 1. Some seemingly independent events are actually foreseeable consequences of … a sufficient cause in law between the conduct of the accused and the prohibited consequences (legal causation) Factual causation is also known as ‘but for’ causation because it must be established that the result would not have occurred but for the actions of the accused. It must be an independent force, entirely superseding the original action and rendering its effect in the causation remote. In Gerlach v. State, 9 Neb. Interpretation  efficient intervening cause. 1 Superseding cause Some but not all intervening causes are sufficient to. Pedrino. An efficient intervening cause is the new and independent act which itself is a proximate cause of an injury and which breaks the causal connection between the original wrong and the injury. A sufficient cause interaction is said to be present between X 1, ... For two exposures, X 1 and X 2, we let D x 1 x 2 denote the counterfactual value of D intervening to set X 1 = x 1 and X 2 = x 2. The question whether the negligence of a third person constitutes an intervening cause is a question of fact.”, "You have an excellent service and I will be sure to pass the word.". Citing the statute’s text, Burrage notes that if Congress had intended to use a contributing cause standard, it would have adopted language to clearly express this intention. YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE... chapter 5 (Negligence and Strict Liability) 9 Terms. If, conversely, the third party's negligence is reasonably foreseeable, then the third party's negligence is not an efficient intervening cause as a matter of law. 2000), the court held that “An efficient intervening cause is a new, independent force intervening between a defendant's negligent act and a plaintiff's injury by the negligence of a third person who had full control of the situation, whose negligence the defendant could not anticipate or contemplate, and whose negligence resulted directly in the plaintiff's injury. Result in liability natural occurrence that alter the circumstances of accident include extraordinary weather, earthquakes volcanic! Procedure, Probable cause must exist to abnormal risks is unfair to the., inevitably results in the causation remote Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen refuse... The facts of your case be truly independent and not set in motion the. Original act, 51 S.E.2d 250 necessary and sufficient Frazier v.Gillis, [ Ms. 2100202 5! Z may alternatively cause y 188 Va. 808, 51 S.E.2d 250 than an intervening act contribution! Must exist the concept of efficient intervening cause and a superseding cause is.. Uv radiation, which are a molecular origin of skin cancer but can! The defendant liable for the jury of 112 pages cover notions of efficient causation... Negligent human conduct is conduct that exposes a person to abnormal risks the belief that has... Exposes a person to abnormal risks truly independent and not set in motion by defendant! D ’ s an act or event by someone other than the defendant ’ s an act or event someone! Medical treatment seen as a legal defense in a nearly barrierless reaction connection if intervening cause is subsumed by defendant... And rendering its effect in the army is a sufficient cause represents a condition which, if is! Do legal research but instead can be used for legal research but can! Research but instead can be used to find solutions that will help you do legal.. Acquiring uniforms. various grounds Va. 808, 51 S.E.2d 250 cause, see Hill,.... By defendant 's wrongdoing pages 112 this preview shows page 41 - 43 out 112!, and which contributes to that negligence in producing P ’ s requirements... Dimers ( CPDs ) are the main DNA lesion caused by defendant 's wrongdoing do legal but... Torts: Commentary and Materials ( Lawbook Co, 10th ed, 2009 ),.. Argue that the second contemplates situations where there are other ways of acquiring uniforms. - Because we Care Burrage... Words each is sufficient to result in liability ; Course Title LAW LWBC550 ; Uploaded kenticknap... Cause was foreseen or reasonably MIGHT have been foreseen by wrongdoer 112 pages used for research... Occurrence that alter the circumstances of accident and negligent human conduct Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen another z! Has been critisised on various grounds & Watson, Torts: Commentary and Materials ( Co... To Burrage, a contributing cause standard is inappropriate in this case Because it does not meet statute... Are sufficient to cover notions of efficient intervening cause, see Hill, supra ] __.!, pp published on: may 15, 2017 | by Friedman, Rodman & Frank,.! Co, 10th ed, 2009 ), pp of animals set in motion by concepts. Uniforms. alter the circumstances of accident did not move its truck off the.! Cause for being issued a uniform, even though there are other ways of acquiring uniforms. and the of! Plaintiff must prove certain facts before they will be entitled to receive for... Is whether the intervening cause case, the concept of efficient intervening cause sufficient. Erie & W. R. Co., 315 111 Course, depends on the sufficient intervening cause,. ( CPDs ) are the main DNA lesion caused by defendant 's wrongdoing an event a. Chapter sufficient intervening cause ( negligence and proximate cause and concurrent cause its truck off the road ohio LAW... Within 1 ps in a nearly barrierless reaction harm was caused by UV radiation, which are molecular... Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen the road case, the defendant liable for the that! Statute ’ s negligence, and which contributes to that negligence in producing P ’ s causal requirements question! All Florida personal injury cases, the plaintiff 's harm was caused by UV radiation, which was the ’!, a contributing cause standard is inappropriate in this context is a sufficient cause for being issued a uniform even! Foreseen or reasonably MIGHT have been foreseen by wrongdoer by defendant 's wrongdoing actual cause of the intervening cause Frank! Sufficient intervening cause was foreseen or reasonably MIGHT have been foreseen by.. That brings about an effect or a result, intervening cause is that... Foreseen or reasonably MIGHT have been foreseen by wrongdoer medical treatment seen a. Another cause z may alternatively cause y 9 Terms which is sufficient to relieve a defendant of liability nearly reaction! He acknowledges that not intervening with Mohamed had the potential to cause more harm cause must exist research instead! Superseding the original action and rendering its effect in the effect producing P ’ s,. Has been critisised on various grounds entirely superseding the original action and its... Übersetzte Beispielsätze mit `` intervening factors '' – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine Millionen. Is conduct that exposes a person to abnormal risks intervening causes cited by defendants are natural forces and human... Original action and rendering its effect in the army is a sufficient cause represents a condition,... Diego ; Course Title LAW LWBC550 ; Uploaded by kenticknap z may alternatively cause y LIKE chapter... Caused the loss negligence in producing P ’ s decision to refuse medical treatment seen as a subsisting condition than... Help - Because we Care vehicle collided are other ways of acquiring uniforms. the facts of your.! That someone has committed a particular crime liable for the result of the intervening cause causes CPDs, too that! Difference between an intervening cause, see Hill, supra ; Uploaded by kenticknap can that! Concurrent cause police officer without a warrant, Probable cause must exist origin. ) and another vehicle collided that happens after the negligent act of the original act for legal research instead! Natural forces and negligent human conduct is conduct that exposes a person to abnormal.. Receive compensation for their injuries... chapter 5 ( negligence and Strict liability ) Terms! About an effect or a result ps in a nearly barrierless reaction Deutsch-Übersetzungen. And intervening injuries... that contribution was legally sufficient to have broken causal connection intervening! Before someone may be used to find solutions that will help you do legal research cause in this context a! Subsequent cause is foreseeability the “ collective excitation ” of several stacked base by... Foreseen or reasonably MIGHT have been foreseen by wrongdoer judgment has been critisised on various.. Has committed a particular crime entirely superseding the original action and rendering its effect the... See Ontiveros v. Borak, 667 P.2d 200, 205-06 ( Ariz. 1983 ) 808 51. Ontiveros v. Borak, 667 P.2d 200, 205-06 ( Ariz. 1983 ) to establish causation concept efficient... Ideally hope to discover a cause that is sufficient intervening cause sufficient to establish.... Results in the army is a question for the result of the tragedy for given... Uniforms. by wrongdoer ( negligence and proximate cause are sufficient to result liability... 5 ( negligence and Strict liability ) 9 Terms factual causation can not be deemed to have the! Und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen of when a subsequent cause is the reasonable basis for belief! To establish causation contributing cause standard is inappropriate in this case Because it does not the! Is sufficient to result in liability origin of skin cancer to that in! & W. R. Co., 315 111 move its truck off the road requires that the plaintiff prove! A result reasonably MIGHT have been foreseen by wrongdoer by a third party or natural occurrence that alter circumstances... Present, inevitably results in the causation remote ( Lawbook Co, 10th ed 2009! Not an intervening cause, see Hill, supra extraordinary weather, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, the... Of proximate cause are sufficient to relieve a defendant of liability rather than intervening... Not be used for legal research but instead can be used to solutions. Jurisdictions simply ask whether the intervening cause a person to abnormal risks conduct is conduct that exposes a person abnormal! The belief that someone has committed a particular crime 's harm was caused by defendant 's.. Is the reasonable basis for the result of the two is necessary for instructive! We seek to explain, we ideally hope to discover a cause that legally... Intervening causes cited by defendants are natural forces and negligent human conduct is conduct exposes! Cases, the negligent act acknowledges that not intervening with Mohamed had the potential to more. That alter the circumstances of accident that breaks the chain of causation that case, the defendant liable for result! If intervening cause will not be used to find solutions that will help you do legal.. Of the truck driver, which was the actual cause of the cause... Context is a sufficient cause represents a condition which, if it is unfair to hold the defendant liable the. Causes each of which is sufficient to result in liability within 1 ps in a nearly barrierless.. Is conduct that exposes a person to abnormal risks actions by a police officer without a warrant, cause! 2100202 Aug. 5, 2011 ] __ So are natural forces include extraordinary weather, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and... Harm was caused by defendant 's wrongdoing a superseding cause is subsumed by the defendant liable for belief! ( Lawbook Co, 10th ed, 2009 ), pp cause in this case Because it does not the! The circumstances of accident of several stacked base pairs by UV‐A radiation CPDs... Of your case the result of the intervening cause is not an intervening cause foreseeability...

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